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Bridge in the Lab

Our game has fascinated scientists from all over the world in topics from gerontology to game tree techniques. Players might be interested in the thousands of results for "bridge game" at Google Scholar. For example, "Success in Spades: Using AI Planning Techniques to Win the World Championship of Computer Bridge" was presented to the International Association for Artificial Intelligence. Researchers wrote: "If we were to use a na´ve adaptation of the classical game-tree search techniquesthe game tree would need to include all of the moves a player might be able to make. The size of this tree would vary depending on the particular bridge deal  but it would include about 5.6x1004 leaf nodes in the worst case." That's a lot of leaf nodes for sure.